Note: computer english
For the second year, violence in Mexico reaches category of 'war':
February 23, 2012 · 4 Comments
BERLIN (approved). - For the second consecutive year, the escalation
of violence stemming from the battle waged by President Felipe
Calderon against drug trafficking in Mexico placed a virtual category
According to the Conflict Barometer 2011, prepared by the renowned
Institute for International Conflict Research, University of
Heidelberg, Germany, Mexico is the only country in the Americas that
keeps an internal war, whose intensity reaches level 5, the most
Barometer high, and that equates to conflicts such as those that were
experienced last year in Nigeria, Somalia, Sudan, Myanmar, Pakistan,
Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Syria, Turkey and Yemen.
In fact, not only Mexico but the world faced last year, a degree of
violence as not seen since 1945. In 2010, triggered six wars and in
2011 the number grew to 20.
"With a total of 20, the number of wars reached the highest levels of
all time from the beginning of the observation period, which is from
1945," the report said.
Thus, of the 388 conflicts observed by German researchers in 2011 -18
more than the previous year, 20 had class war and 18 were located at
the "edge of war." This gives the desolate figure of 38 highly
violent conflicts around the world, some of them in the context of
the so-called "Arab Spring".
The Conflict Barometer, University of Heidelberg is published
annually since 1992 and has achieved significant worldwide reputation
For the Mexican case, the Barometer 2011 recorded six conflicts, two
of which are classified as high intensity violent conflicts. The
first, the war waged by the government of Felipe Calderon against
drug cartels, remains, concerning the 2010 - level 5 by way of war,
while the second, the violence generated by the cartels together with
paramilitary groups, reaches level 4 intensity, ie it is a conflict
"on the brink of war."
"Mexico faces two separate conflicts. On the one hand, the war
launched by the government against the drug cartels and the other,
the war between the cartels and paramilitary groups. Both conflicts
have been exacerbated by the use of automatic weapons purchased in
the U.S.. This situation has affected the United States so that the
State Department declared that country to Mexican drug cartels as the
biggest threat to national security, "says the document of 116 pages.
In the recitation of facts, the researchers emphasize, first, the
substantial increase in military and federal police deployed in at
least 15 of the 32 states of the country and on the other hand, the
division of their own cartels and "appearance of more than 150
paramilitary groups," most notably the "Matazetas". The violence
generated by all these actors, result that in 2011 there have been at
least 12 000 more deaths.
The other four conflicts that include Mexico in the Barometer 2011
are still holding the Mexican government with the People's Assembly
of the Peoples of Oaxaca (APPO), with the Zapatista Army of National
Liberation (EZLN), the Popular Revolutionary Army (EPR) and the
In the case of the APPO, the study argues that the level of violence
remains at a range of 3, meaning violent crisis of medium intensity,
despite the coming to power of Gabino Cue, who had the backing of the
On the conflict between the government and the EZLN but their
intensity level was reduced to 2, that is, non-violent crisis of low
intensity, German researchers include allegations that the Zapatistas
are against federal and state governments to support and finance
paramilitary forces in criminal acts against indigenous groups.
Finally, regarding the underlying conflicts between the government
and the EPR and the opposition, the Barometer does not describe or
analyze, only the states.